(12) In a few NENA languages the latest preterite of Classification II verbs provides a good vocalism (m)CoCiC- otherwise (m)CuCiC- which has no precursor in the previous dialects. Noldeke (1868, 213) suggested that progressive mode try related to brand new Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he took they out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Forms that have o otherwise u is actually absent additional NENA and also in lots of of your own NENA languages: Hertevin, Sanandaj Religious, and you will Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) All round present is noted from the a good prefix in all NENA except Hertevin as well as in Mandaic plus Turoyo. The newest prefix takes certainly three models: (a) k- on every verbs (complex in order to c- from inside the Urmi, extended in order to ko- prior to consonants for the Turoyo, as well as in Zakho becoming g- prior to a spoken phoneme); (b) k- but only towards the a finite class of verbs (which includes voicing consumption and frequently almost every other transform as well); or (c) i- into all of the verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, private communication); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we create say’, however, doqIx-wa-ce ‘we would to see it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he eats, have a tendency to eat’, but sate ‘he drinks, tend to, will get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin i-zare:los angeles ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu i-napli baro ‘they chase her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
The brand new k- prefix seems to be an endurance of your own prefix qa- from BT, as with the new common qatane ‘he teaches’. e ‘stands’. In a number of east languages new shipment of k- happens to be restricted naughtydate online to a small family of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In other people, it offers disappeared and you can become changed because of the a different prefix we-, hence most likely started while the less sorts of we[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I would go to new synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla weil kIcca ‘I visited bring currency in order to a beneficial girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The newest verb ‘give’ is actually yehav within the BT, and yav in the Syriac. This has been remade in most NENA dialects through the incorporation of one’s following l- ‘to’. The latest imperative, which was hav in the Syriac and you can BT, was hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in all NENA whereby You will find guidance, but not from inside the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic.
(15) Throughout NENA, the only one vital off qyama ‘get up’ has lost their latest m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Religious qu (Panoussi, 110). The brand new plural, not, holds the latest m.
(16) Throughout NENA, new crucial out-of (i)zala ‘go’ was unusual: Aradhin quand (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani au moment ou (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) Across NENA, various conditions are used given that foot to own reflexive pronouns such as ‘myself’. He’s: ruh- inside the Hertevin plus in Turoyo, nos- in the three easternmost Jewish dialects, and you can gyan- from the left dialects: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
This qa- is itself a contraction of qa?
(18) An alternative preposition definition ‘to’ or ‘for’ which takes the form ta, tla, or tla is common, no matter if perhaps not universal, into the NENA, however included in Mandaic otherwise Turoyo. ) came to cook’ (Rubba, individual telecommunications), Zakho cuxa los angeles psIxle darga story ‘no one to established the entranceway so you’re able to him’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 182).